Dialogic possibilities of online supervision

Main Article Content

Anne Bang-Larsen
Ane Qvortrup


When schools locked down owing to the spread of COVID-19, Danish upper secondary school students worked on the major written assignment that completes their studies. This assignment is interdisciplinary, and students receive up to twenty hours of supervision from two teachers. This year, supervision was reorganised into a virtual format. This article explores how and in what ways students benefited from this reorganisation. This article is based on a mixed-methods design that includes quantitative and qualitative data and investigates how various online supervision formats support dialogic interaction. This article focuses on the student’s experience of supervision. It finds that all the formats we investigated offer the opportunity for dialogue during supervision, but their potential varies significantly. Some formats seem to have great potential for supporting students’ academic development, whereas others support their psychosocial development. We conclude by addressing the importance of choosing the online format suited to a given purpose and recommend that supervisors be aware of the didactic purposes of the various formats.

Article Details

How to Cite
Bang-Larsen, A., & Qvortrup, A. (2022). Dialogic possibilities of online supervision . Dialogic Pedagogy: A Journal for Studies of Dialogic Education, 10, DT59-DT81. https://doi.org/10.5195/dpj.2022.443
Special Issue: Digital technologies supporting dialogical education
Author Biographies

Anne Bang-Larsen, University of Southern Denmark, SDU

Anne Bang-Larsen, Ph.D. Center for Upper Secondary Education Research. Department for the Study of Culture, University of Southern Denmark, SDU, Denmark. Email: anneb@sdu.dk

Ane Qvortrup, University of Southern Denmark, SDU

Ane Qvortrup, Professor, Ph.D. Center for Upper Secondary Education Research. Department for the Study of Culture, University of Southern Denmark, SDU, Denmark. Email: anq@sdu.dk


Al Fadda, H. (2019). The Relationship between Self-Regulations and Online Learning in an ESL Blended Learning Context. English Language Teaching, 12(6), 87-93

Asplund, S.-B., Olin.Scheller, C. & Tanner, M. (2018). Under the teacher’s radar: Literacy practices in task-related smartphone use in the connected classroom. L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature 18: 1-26

Bakhtin, M.M. (1981). The dialogic imagination: four essays by M. M. Bakhtin, Edited by: Holquist, M. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. (C. Emerson and M. Holquist, Trans.

Bakhtin, M.M. (1986). Speech genres and other late essays, Edited by: Emerson, C. & Holquist, M. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press

Bang-Larsen, A. (2022). Vejledning – et drama i flere akter. Ph.D.-afhandling, Syddansk Universitet, Institut for Kultur og Medier.

Bang-Larsen, A., & Qvortrup, A. (2021a). Virtuel vejledning under Corona-krisen. Tidsskriftet Læring Og Medier (LOM), 14(24).

Bastalich, W. (2017). Content and context in knowledge production: a critical review of doctoral supervision literature, Studies in Higher Education, 42:7, 1145-1157. DOI: 10.1080/03075079.2015.1079702

Bierema, L.L., Merriam, S.B. (2002). E-mentoring: Using Computer Mediated Communication to Enhance the Mentoring Process. Innovative Higher Education 26, 211–227 https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1017921023103

Bengtsen, S. & Jensen, G. (2015). Online supervision at the university - A comparative study of supervision on student assignments face-to-face and online. Tidsskriftet Læring Og Medier (LOM), 8(13): https://doi.org/10.7146/lom.v8i13.19381

Benmore, A. (2014). Boundary Management in Doctoral Supervision: How Supervisors Negotiate Roles and Role Transition Throughout the Supervisory Journey. Studies in Higher Education, doi:10.1080/03075079.2014.967203

Bjørndal, C.R.P. (2008). Bak veiledningens dør: Symmetri og asymmetri i veiledningssamtaler. Tromsø: Universitetet i Tromsø.

Boud, D., Lee, A. (2005). ‘Peer Learning’ as Pedagogic Discourse for Research Education. Studies in Higher Education 30: 501–16. doi: 10.1080/03075070500249138

Brown, G., & Atkins, M. (1988). Effective teaching in higher education. London: Methuen

Bryman, Alan (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research 6: 97–113

Bundsgaard, J. (2005). Bidrag til danskfagets it-didaktik – med særligt henblik på kommunikative kompetencer og på metodiske forandringer af undervisningen. Odense: Forlaget Ark

Christensen, T., Elf, N., Hobel, P. & Qvortrup, A. (2018). Introduktion: Didaktik i udvikling. I Christensen, T., Elf, N., Hobel, P., Qvortrup, A. & Troelsen, S. (red.). Didaktik i udvikling (s. 9-25). Århus: Klim

Christensen, T.S., Elf., N. & Krogh, E. (2014). Skrivekulturer i folkeskolens niende klasse. Odense: Syddansk Universitetsforlag

Chung, L.-Y. (2015). Exploring the Effectiveness of Self-Regulated Learning in Massive Open Online Courses on Non-Native English Speakers. International Journal of Distance EducationTechnologies 13(3): 61-73

Clancy, D. S. & Sentance, M. (2020). Keeping Students Academically Engaged during the Coronavirus Crisis. Pioneer Institute for Public Policy Research. Retrieved December 23, 2020 from https://pioneerinstitute.org/pioneer-research/academic-standards-pioneer-research/keeping-students-academically-engaged-during-the-coronavirus-crisis-part-one/.

Creswell, J.W. (2017). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Delamont, S., Parry, O. & Atkinson, P. (1998). Creating a Delicate Balance: the doctoral supervisor’s dilemmas, Teaching in Higher Education, 3:2, 157-172. DOI: 10.1080/1356215980030203

Doyle, N., Jacobs, K., & Ryan, C. (2016). Faculty Mentors’ Perspectives on E-Mentoring Post-Professional Occupational Therapy Doctoral Students. Occupational Therapy International, 23(3), 305–317

Dysthe, O. (1997). Det flerstemmige klasserum. Skrivning og samtale for at lære. Aarhus: Klim

Dysthe, O. (2002). “Professors as Mediators of Academic Text Cultures: An Interview Study with Advisors and Master’s Degree Students in Three Disciplines in a Norwegian University.” Written Communication 19 (4): 493–544. doi:10.1177/074108802238010

Dysthe, O. (2003). Dialog, samspil og læring. Århus: Forlaget Klim

Dysthe, O., Samara, A., Westrheim, K. (2006). Multivoiced supervision of Master’s students: A case study of alternative supervision practices in higher education. Studies in Higher Education 31(3): 299–318

Elf, N., Petersen, C.K. & Qvortrup, A. (2018). Digitalisering i de gymnasiale uddannelser – status 2017. Gympæd 2.0 20: 22-25

Emilsson, U. M. & Johnsson, E. (2007). “Supervision of Supervisors: On Developing Supervision in Postgraduate Education.” Higher Education Research and Development 26: 163–79. doi: 10.1080/07294360701310797

Erichsen, E. A., Bolliger, D. U., Halupa, C. (2014). Student Satisfaction with Graduate Supervision in Doctoral Programs Primarily Delivered in Distance Education Settings. Studies in Higher Education, 39 (2): 321–338

Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures: selected essays. New York: Basic Books.

Greene, Jennifer C. (2007). Mixed methods in social inquiry. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Greene, Jennifer C., Valerie J. Caracelli, and Wendy F. Graham (1989). Toward a conceptual framework for mixed-method evaluation designs. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 11: 255–274

Gurr, G. M. (2010). Negotiating the ‘Rackety Bridge’ ─A Dynamic Model for Aligning Supervisory Style with Research Student Development. Higher Education Research and Development 20: 81–92. https://doi.org/10.1080/07924360120043882

Hasse, C. & Andersen, B.L. (2012). Teknologiforståelse professionerne. I: K.D. Søndergaard & C. Hasse (red.). Teknologiforståelse – på skoler og hospitaler, s. 11-38. Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag

Hastrup, K. B. (2012). The Social Life of Science. Public Service Review: Science and Technology, 15, 90-91

Hattie, J. & Timperley, H. (2007). The Power of Feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112

Ives, G. & Rowley, G. (2005) Supervisor selection or allocation and continuity of supervision: Ph.D. students’ progress and outcomes, Studies in Higher Education, 30:5, 535-555, DOI: 10.1080/03075070500249161

Johnson, L., Lee, A. & Green, B. (2000). The PhD and the Autonomous Self: Gender, Rationality and Postgraduate Pedagogy. Studies in Higher Education 25: 135–47.

Krogh, E. (2003). Et fag i moderniteten. Danskfagets didaktiske diskurser. Ph.d.-afhandling. Dansk Institut for Gymnasiepædagogik. Syddansk Universitet

Krogh, E. (2006). Danskfaget i moderniteten. I Ongstad, S. (red.). Fag og didaktikk i lærerutdanning. Kunnskap i grenseland. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget

Krogh, E. (2016). De store formater: Et studie i skrive- og skriveudviklinger i undersøgende skrivning. I Krogh, E. & Jakobsen, K.S. (red.). Skriverudviklinger i gymnasiet (71-105). Odense: Syddansk Universitetsforlag

Kumar, S., Johnson, M. (2017). Mentoring doctoral students online: mentor strategies and challenges. Mentoring and Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 25(2), 202-222

Kumar, S & Johnson, M (2019). Online mentoring of dissertations: the role of structure and support, Studies in Higher Education, 44:1, 59-71: DOI: 10.1080/03075079.2017.1337736

Kvale, S., & Brinkmann, S. (2015). Interview: Det kvalitative forskningsinterview som håndværk. (3 ed.) Hans Reitzels Forlag

Lee, A. 2008. How are Doctoral Students Supervised? Concepts of Doctoral Research Supervision. Studies in Higher Education 33: 267–81. doi: 10.1080/03075070802049202

Linell, Per (2003). Dialogical Tensions: On Rommetveitian Themes of Minds, Meanings, Monologues, and Languages, Mind, Culture, and Activity, 10:3, 219 – 229. DOI: 10.1207/s15327884mca1003_4

Læreplan Studieområdet – hhx 2017: https://www.uvm.dk/-/media/filer/uvm/gym-laereplaner-2017/hhx/studieomraadet-hhx-august-2017-ua.pdf

Læreplan Studieområdet – htx 2017: https://www.uvm.dk/-/media/filer/uvm/gym-laereplaner-2017/htx/studieomraadet-htx-august-2017-ua.pdf

Læreplan Studieretningsprojektet – stx 2017: https://www.uvm.dk/-/media/filer/uvm/gym-laereplaner-2017/stx/studieretningsprojektet-stx-august-2017-ua.pdf

Maxwell, T.W., Smyth, R. (2011). Higher Degrees Research Supervision: From Practice towards Theory. Higher Education Research and Development 30(2), 219-231

McGuinness, C. (2020). Educating at a Distance: A Redistribution of Roles. Retrieved December 23, 2020, from https://epale.ec.europa.eu/sites/default/files/ase.pdf

Ongstad, S. (2006). Fag i endring. Om didaktiktisering af kunnskap. I Ongstad, S. (red.). Fag og didaktikk i lærerutdanning. Kunnskap i grenseland. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget

Mutch DM. The Covid-19 Global Pandemic: A Natural Experiment in the Making. Lifestyle Genom (2020). doi: 10.1159/000510217

Park, C. (2005). War of Attrition: Patterns of non-completion amongst postgraduate research students. Higher Education Review, 38(1), 48–53.

Pearson, M., and A. Brew (2002). Research Training and Supervision Development. Studies in Higher Education 27: 135–50. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360500062870

Pearson, M. (2005) Framing research on doctoral education in Australia in a global context, Higher Education Research & Development, 24:2, 119-134. DOI: 10.1080/07294360500062870

Peck, L., Stefaniak, J. E. & Shah, S. J. (2018). The Correlation of Self-Regulation and Motivation with Retention and Attrition in Distance Education. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 19(3), 1-15

Power, M., Vaughan, N.(2010). Redesigning Online Learning for International Graduate Seminar Delivery. Journal of Distance Education = Revue de L'enseignement à Distance, 24(2).

Prior, P. (1995). Tracing authoritative and internally persuasive discourses: A case study of response, revision, and disciplinary enculturation. Research in the Teaching of English, 29, 288-32

Qvortrup, A. (2018). Dialogen mellem almendidaktik og fagdidaktik – komplementaritet og eklekticisme som didaktiske kernebegreber. I Christensen, T., Elf, N., Hobel, P., Qvortrup, A. & Troelsen, S. (red.). Didaktik i udvikling (s. 29-43). Århus: Klim

Qvortrup, A. (2020a). Gymnasiet anno 2019. I Qvortrup, A. (red.). Gymnasiet i udvikling (s. 19-46). København: Hans Reitzels forlag

Qvortrup, A. (2020). Gymnasiet i den historiske Corona-tid – et elevperspektiv: https://www.sdu.dk/-/media/files/om_sdu/institutter/ikv/centre/cfs/rapport.pdf

Qvortrup, A., Zeuner, L. & Raae, P.H. (2017). Vejen til reformen 2017 – reformeringsprocesser i gymnasiet. Gympæd 2.0 17: 8-11

Rademaker, L. L., Duffy, J., Wetzler, E., & Zaikina-Montgomery, H. (2016). Chair perceptions of trust between mentor and mentee in online doctoral dissertation mentoring. Online Learning, 20(1), 1-13. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1096384

Riessman, C.K. (2008). Narrative Methods for the Human Sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Skagen, K. (2013). I veiledningens landskap. Oslo: Cappelen Damm.

Sommers, N. & Saltz, L. (2004): The Novice as Expert: Writing the Freshman Year. College Composition and Communication, 56(1), 124-149.

Suler, J. (2004). The Psychology of Text Relationships. In Kraus, R., Zack, J. & Stricker, G. (ed.). Online Counseling. A Handbook for Mental Health Professionals. London: Elsevier Academic Press

Tladi, L. S. (2017). Perceived Ability and Success: Which Self-Efficacy Measures Matter? A Distance Learning Perspective. Open Learning, 32(3), 243-261

Vejledning Studieretningsprojektet – stx 2020: https://www.uvm.dk/-/media/filer/uvm/gym-vejledninger-til-laereplaner/stx/201028-studieretningsprojektet-stx-vejledning-ua.pdf

Vejledning Studieområdet – hhx 2020: https://www.uvm.dk/-/media/filer/uvm/gym-vejledninger-til-laereplaner/hhx/201026-studieområdet-hhx-vejledning-oktober-2020.pdf

Vejledning Studieområdet – htx 2019: https://www.uvm.dk/-/media/filer/uvm/gym-laereplaner-2017/htx/studieomraadet-htx-vejledning-marts-2019-ua.pdf

Walker, M. & Thomson, P. (2010). The Routledge doctoral supervisor’s companion: Supporting effective research in education and the social sciences, London: Routledge.

Wang, Y., Peng, H., Huang, R., Hou, Y. & Wang, J. (2008). Characteristics of Distance Learners: Research on Relationships of Learning Motivation, Learning Strategy, Self-Efficacy, Attribution and Learning Result. Open Learning, 23(1), 17-28

Wichmann-Hansen, G., Eika, B.& Mørcke, A. M. (2007). Hvad findes der af litteratur om vejledning? – Litteratursøgning med fokus på publicerede, evidensbaserede studier. Dansk Universitetspædagogisk Tidsskrift, 2(3), 11-19: https://tidsskrift.dk/dut/article/view/5636